The report is devoted to the issues of social adaptation of convicts during and after serving prison sentences. The relevance of the topic is associated with a high level of post-release recidivism in Russia. The author analyzes of statistics, Russian legislation, semi-structured interviews with prison officers, human rights activists. As a result, authors have found that in penal institutions, there are several areas of rehabilitation of convicts, in particular, labor, education, psychological support, medical assistance, and some other. Besides, inmates receive assistance from their families and non-profit organizations. After analyzing the collected data, it was possible to identify the chief characteristics of these areas.